http://www.ucw.cz/~hubicka

By pressing button here: | After six seconds of zooming: |

In case you think that default speed is boring (it is quite slow to make XaoS
smooth on slow computer) you may change it by pressing **arrow up/down**. But understand
that faster zooming is more expensive so if speed is too high you should
see just funny colorfull blinking rectangles.

Autopilot has also some additional features. It return back in case zoomed picture is not interesting anymore. Also is able to detect, when zoomed into really boring part or reached limit of floating point numbers and restart zooming.

On keys **'1' - '5'** are Mandelbrot sets with various power. The "normal" Mandelbrot
set is: z=z^2+c on key **'1'**. For example on key **'3'** is z=z^4+c.

On key **'6'** is fractal called octo. It is some fractal that Thomas discovered
in fractint. Looks nice in other planes..see bellow.

On key **'7'** is Newton. It is famous newton formula for finding roots.

On key **'8'** is Bernsley. It is another formula comming from real world..
I forgot what means.

On key **'9'** is Phoenix. It is very nice and quite famous fractal.

On key **'0'** is Magnet. This fractal has quite complex formula so it is bit slow.

'1' | '2' | '3' |

'4' | '5' | '6' |

'7' | '8' | '9' |

'0' | ||

Please select outcoloring mode: 1 - iter 2 - iter+real 3 - iter+imag 4 - iter+real/imag 5 - iter+real+imag+real/imag 6 - binary decomposition 7 - biomorphsNow you may choose mode by pressing key

Those crtyptic names are mathematical formulas where **iter** means number of
iterations, **Real** real coordinate of last orbit, **Imag** imaginary coordinate of last orbit.

- iter
- this is classical coloring mode that takes number of iterations
- iter+real
- this mode takes number of iterations and adds real part of last position of orbit
- iter+imag
- similar to previous one except takes imaginary part
- iter+real/imag
- as previous but adds real part divided by imaginary part. There is no mathematical reason for it. Just looks well..
- iter+real+imag+real/imag
- this is summary of all previous modes..
- binary decomposition
- takes number of iterations in case that imaginary part is greater than zero. Otherwise takes maximal number of iterations minus number of iterations
- biomorphs
- takes number of iterations in case that imaginary or real part is inside boundaries. Otherwise takes maximal number of iterations minus number of iterations

'1' | '2' | '3' |

'4' | '5' | '6' |

'7' | ||

Please select display plane: 1 - mu 2 - 1/mu 3 - 1/(mu+0.25) 4 - lambda 5 - 1/lambda 6 - 1/(lambda-1) 7 - 1/(mu-1.40115)

Another cryptic names. And, you guessed, another mathematical formulas.
Here **mu** means coordinates in normal complex plane.
In case you have coordinates in 1/mu plane and you need complex plane
(to calculate mandelbrot) you simply use coordinates as variable mu.
**Lambda** is another plane that can be converted to mu using similiar
formula.

- mu
- normal mode..
- 1/mu
- Inversion-infinity is in 0 and 0 is in infinity.
- 1/(mu+0.25)
- Similar to inversion but moves center outside of Mandelbrot so it looks parabolic
- lambda
- lambda plane
- 1/lambda
- Inversion of lambda plane
- 1/lambda-1
- Inversion with moved center
- 1/(mu-1.40115)
- Very interesting mode for Mandelbrot set. Makes small thinks big. So you can browse its details.

'1' | '2' | '3' |

'4' | '5' | '6' |

'7' | ||

By pressing 'M' here: | You will get following Julia: |

UNIX/X11 specific note:

In 8bpp pseudo-color X11 colors can look very ugly, because palette is
shared with other programs and when XaoS can't allocate its palette it simply
uses simpler one. Also changing of colors takes long time. To avoid this use
true-color or hi-color displays, close some colorful applications like netscape,
or use **-private** switch. Using -private speeds up palette changing or rotation, because recalculation of mandelbrot after every change is not required.

Changed palette.

This trick is easy to implement on clasical
PC VGA cards. At other platforms this should be implemented by
other way than normal palette changing, pecause palette is shared with other
programs(X windows in pseudocolor) or truecolor display does not have palette
at all. XaoS emulates this feature at most such platforms but this emulation
should slow down a much. For example at **truecolor or text** displays this requires **redrawing of whole screen**
Some drivers does not support it at all.

And at X11 with 8bpp pseudocolor palette rotation
does not work in default shared palette mode. You need to use **-private**
switch to enable this feature.

When palette rotation is enabled, you may control its speed using key **left** and **right**. Normally this keys are used for changing number of iterations. See following part.

Press and hold arrow left and wait until iterations are high enough. This may slow down calculation much..to reduce number of iterations press arrow right.

This boring area: |
Should be funny again with 1000 iterations: |

To enable this mode press 'E'. XaoS is also able to generate this images in animation so you may use all normal XaoS functions except palette changing/rotation, because this is unnecesary. To make animation yet more exciting XaoS emulates "falling" into the set. So during zooming distance from set is getting lower and lower. But never lets you fall down so when set reeaches level of your monitor distance is changed again and you are far away.

To make this in real sizes xaos needs to know **exact sizes of your monitor**.
Because most platforms does not know this values you need to use **command
line options** to tune this. Otherwise you should have problems with seeing
anything in images generated by XaoS (in case your monitor is too big or
resolution low). Or
images are not as deep as normaly (in case your monitor small or resolution high).

By default xaos expect my 15" monitor (29.0cm x 21.5 cm). Another problem is virtual screen supported by some windowed enviroments(like X11) that makes program think that resolution is higher and you see just part of this screen. This cause problem with recalculation screen size to pixel size.

The worst think you should do at all is to run fullscreen XaoS in some graphical window(windows 95 or OS/2 ?) where XaoS don't know that real size of his window is different.

Following command line options are provided for this.

- -screenwidth
- -screenheight
- lets you specify size of your screen in centimeters. Note that you need to specify size of image at you monitor. Not size with some borders or such.
- -pixelwidth
- -pixelheight
- lets you specify exact size of one pixel in cases I described bellow.

Another problem should happend when window is smaller than 8cm. In this case you will be unable to see anything.

So correct way to see XaoS stereogram is:

- start XaoS with options specifying corect size of screen or pixel
- Sit 60cm away from monitor
- Put your eyes to distance 8.5 cm from each other :)
- In case you use windowed enviroment resize XaoS window to make it wider than, say, 15 cm.
- press 'E'
- concentrate far away from monitor(you should try to use your reflection..) until random points will get into different distances and you will see mandelbrot
- Curefully use you mouse to zoom into interesting areas(it is easy to lose concentration when you are not trained. Or use autopilot.
- Enjoy animation :)

Last problem should be that **fractal is deformed** This can be caused
by wrong geometry of your monitor. Eye is extremly ensible for distances
so should see very small changes in geometry that are normally unvisible.

result of wrong sulig guessing: | correct image: |

Many fractals fans now asks why I don't use boundary detection. Please see ahgorithm descriptions that explains why I decided for solid guessing.

You may solve this problem by two ways:

- press
**'R'**to let XaoS recalculate image - use
**'G'**to control solid guessing.

Plase select solid guessing mode 1 - solid guessing disabled 2 - guess maximally 2x2 rectangles 3 - guess maximally 3x3 rectangles 4 - guess maximally 4x4 rectangles 5 - guess maximally 5x5 rectangles 6 - guess maximally 6x6 rectangles 7 - guess maximally 7x7 rectangles 8 - guess maximally 8x8 rectanglesNow you may choose range. Default is 2x2. Larger range means faster calculation and less exact results. By pressing '1' you may disable this feature.

Plase select drawing mode 1 - fast drawing disabled 2 - use only during animation 3 - use also for new imagesThis lets you choose when such resolution lowering is possible. By pressing

Fractal name:Mandelbrot Fractal type:Mandelbrot View:[-2.416666666667,-1.250000000000] size:[3.333333333333,2.500000000000] Screen size: 158:98 Iterations: 128 Palette size:248 Autopilot:Off Plane:mu zoomspeed:8.000000 incoloring:iter outcoloring:iter Parameter:noneiter

- Image saving
- By pressing 'S' you may save current image into interlaced gif image. Fractal is recalculated before saving to get best possible output
- Interrupting of calculation
- By pressing 'Z' you may interrupt current calculation in case it is too long and you know that it is bad..
- Displaying of current status
- By pressing space during calculation you may invoke displaying of current status. It looks bit strange because some part are already calculated and some part are from some old image. But you may guess how result will look like..
- Online help
- By pressing 'H' hyperuglytext viewer with help text is displayed. Using keys '1' and '2' you may browse help.
- Quit
- This is really not necessary..but by 'Q' you may quit XaoS.

Subscribe xaosyou may also subscribe xaos-announce in case you want to be informed about new releases or xaos-devel in case you want to become XaoS developer (and you will be welcomed)

Send all comments, questions, suggestions, etc... to

Jan Hubicka,

Copyright © 1996 by Jan Hubicka. All rights
reserved.

Last Modified: Fri Jul 26 14:09:01 CDT 1996